ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and DIABETES
The endocrine system is affected by HH & the pancreas is one
part of this system that is vulnerable to the effects of too much iron.
Some studies indicate that 10% of diabetes is caused by underlying iron overload
in the pancreas. Certainly, it would be prudent for all diabetics to have
an iron profile done & all HH patients should have their pancreatic function
Click on the titles to read more regarding diabetes with HH.
A history of phlebotomy therapy for hemochromatosis. Crosby WH.
Chapman Cancer Center, Joplin, MO Am J Med Sci 1991 Jan The earlier the
disease is discovered, the less risk of morbidity and mortality. Screening tests
(serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin) are recommended for
all blood relatives of index cases of this hereditary disease and for all
clinics where complications of hemochromatosis may be treated: liver disorder
however mild, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, arthropathies, sterility,
impotence, premature menopause, and abnormal pigmentation of the skin.
Cardiomyopathy as the cause of death in genetic hemochromatosis-.
Z Gastroenterol. 1996 Mar [article in German] The reports of these two cases
underline that hemochromatosis-associated cardiomyopathy is often irreversible
if severe congestive heart failure is present. In cardiac decompensation heart
transplantation has to be considered as early as possible.
Chronic iron overload and toxicity: clinical chemistry perspective.
Clin Lab Sci 2001 Summer; This toxicity involves many
organs leading to a variety of serious diseases such as liver disease, heart
disease, diabetes mellitus, hormonal abnormalities, dysfunctional immune
system, etc. The tissue damage associated with iron overload is believed to
result primarily from free radical reactions mediated by iron.
Consequences of New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Disorders of Iron and
Heme Metabolism Hematology 2000
Society of Hematology The screening strategy could
be based on the assessment of serum transferrin saturation in
adults aged 18 or more. Genetic testing testing for C282Y would be
confined to individuals with transferrin saturation > 45%. This
strategy would then avoid the ethical, logistical, and financial
problems raised by systematic genetic testing as well as the
societal impact of discovering a genetic mutation in asymptomatic
persons without a disease. It is, in fact, essential that major
changes occur in the attitudes towards unexpressed or slightly
expressed HFE homozygosity, especially by insurers and health care
administrators, to avoid any adverse genetic discrimination.
Clinical management of iron overload.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1998 Sep HHC is a common
inherited disorder, characterized by iron accumulation in the liver, heart,
pancreas, and other organs. The clinical consequences of systemic iron loading
are diverse and not always improved with iron reduction therapy.
Studies of Haemochromatosis Queensland
Institute of Medical Research, Hepatocellular Cancer Laboratory,
Professor Lawrie Powell Knowledge of haemochromatosis, its
prevention, the type and severity of symptoms it causes, the availability and
nature of treatment, ability of sufferers to participate in normal activities,
and longevity are relevant issues for community education. Members of an
informed public can mobilise support for the early diagnosis of
haemochromatosis, encourage people to be tested for the disorder and influence
the debate about screening.
Deferoxamine therapy in high-ferritin diabetes.
Cutler P. Diabetes 1989 Oct Data show that lowering
elevated ferritin levels correlated well with diabetes control and improved
fasting glucose, triglyceride, and HbA1c in 8 of 9 patients with high ferritin
levels. This study shows there is a need to study iron metabolism in poorly
controlled diabetes and demonstrates the value of DFO in controlling
Dermatology and the Liver and the Pancreas: Hemochromtaosis Section
6 of 10. Emedicine journal Sept. 27, 2001. Hemochromatosis is a
disorder of increased iron uptake leading to excess deposition in multiple
body organs. The dermatologic manifestation of the disease involves skin
hyperpigmentation, which is present in more than 90% of patients at the time
of diagnosis. This discoloration has a characteristic metallic gray or
bronze-brown color that is generally diffuse, but it may be increased in areas
of scars or on the face, neck, extensor surfaces of the arms, or genitalia.
Approximately 20% of patients also have pigmentation of the buccal mucosa or
Diabetes mellitus in hemochromatosis Z
Gastroenterol. 1999 Jun [Article in German] The
degree of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in hemochromatosis is
closely associated with the stage of iron overload and thus also the stage of
the accompanying liver disease. Similar to other liver diseases glucose
intolerance due to insulin resistance precedes diabetes mellitus also in
Diagnosis and management of
by Dr. Anthony Tavill, Director of the Maurice and
Sadie Friedman Center For Digestive Diseases and Liver Disorders, Mathile
and Morton J. Stone Professor of Digestive Diseases and Liver Disorders at
the Mt. Sinai Medical Center,
Professor of Medicine and Nutrition at Case Wetern Reserve University.
[Excellent & thorough article of diagnosis & treatment. This
is a pdf file]
Diagnosis and treatment of genetic hemochromatosis
Rev Prat. 2000 May 1 [Article in French]
Moirand R, Guillygomarc'h A, Brissot P, Deugnier Y. The disease can be
lethal due to liver disease, carcinoma or heart disease, but life expectancy
goes to normal if patients are treated before the occurrence of cirrhosis.
Treatment relies on regular venesections. Familial screening is essential.
Iron Supplements - Use or not to use?
Nutrition Today James R. Connor John L. Beard 05-06-1997 There is
little reason to support a general need for iron supplementation in the diet
at any age. Perhaps this article and review of supplementation pros and cons
should conclude with a new interpretation of an old saying: "It is
better to wear out than to rust out;" don't expose your system to more
iron than it needs.
Endocrine abnormalities in idiopathic haemochromatosis.
Q J Med. 1983 Winter
Impairment of anterior pituitary function occurs in idiopathic
haemochromatosis but is selective; gonadotrophin and prolactin deficiencies
are common. Clinical hypogonadism is usually hypogonadotrophic in origin.
clinical spectrum and prognosis of hemochromatosis,
in liver function tests (75%), weakness and lethargy (74%), skin
hyperpigmentation (70%), diabetes mellitus (48%), arthralgia (44%), impotence
(45% in males), and ECG abnormalities (31%) were the most frequent findings and
symptoms at diagnosis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1994
DIAGNOSES: A case of Hereditary Hemochromatosis with dilated
micronodular cirrhosis, history of chronic alcoholism from Department of
Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
Genetic Haemochromatosis: A guideline on Diagnosis & Therapy
compiled on behalf of the Clinical Task Force of the British Committee
for Standards in Haemotology 2/2000 [a pdf file]
and Diabetes– By Paul Steel.
Paul Steel is a diabetes educator with Manningham Community Health Service
in Victoria. He has both a personal and professional interest in
haemochromatosis, the most common genetic disorder in Australia, occurring
in about one in 300 people.
Haemochromatosis as an endocrine cause of subfertility.
BMJ 1998;316:915-916 ( 21 March )
Clinical review. Lesson of the week. Haemochromatosis is
well established as a cause of infertility in both men and women, usually
because iron deposition in the pituitary or the gonads leads to
hypogonadism. As haemochromatosis is a fairly common disorder
it should be considered when subfertility from an endocrine
disorder is being investigated.
- Hemochromatosis can now
be appropriately defined as the presence of two hemochromatosis alleles with or
without organ injury, and with or without the presence of iron overload.
have not been able to retrieve the url to the website from where this came, so
if anyone locates it, please let me know!]
eMedicine Journal, December 7 2001, Volume 2, Number 12, Authored by Sandor
Joffe, MD, Section Chief of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Beth
Israel Medical Center This article covers the pathophysiology of
hemochromatosis as well as the techniques in using ULS, CT & MRI to
identify iron deposition in the organs. Pictures & descriptions from
scans of the abdomen are shown. The pancreas also is commonly involved by
primary hemochromatosis. Patients with early hemochromatosis (noncirrhotic)
frequently have insulin resistance, while patients with cirrhosis and
hemochromatosis often have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine
The symptoms of hemochromatosis include fatigue, weight loss,
weakness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chronic abdominal pain, and
impaired sexual performance. The patient may also show symptoms commonly
connected with heart failure, diabetes or cirrhosis of the liver. Changes in
the pigment of the skin may appear, such as grayness in certain areas, or a
tanned or yellow (jaundice) appearance.
Hemochromatosis: a review. Clin J Oncol
Nurs 2001 Nov-Dec;5(6):257-60 Dolbey CH. Fletcher Allen
Health Care, UHC Campus, Arnold 2, 1 South Prospect Avenue, Burlington, VT,
05401, USA. This disorder affects the liver, pancreas, heart, and endocrine
systems, and if undetected and untreated, organ damage and death can result.
- Hemochromatosis, A simple genetic trait,
Dr. Richard D. Press, Oregon Health Sciences University With the discovery of
the causative gene, the disorder stands revealed as America's single most common
mendelian disease. Unlike other genetic diseases, it is already curable. Indeed,
genetic screening makes it potentially preventable.
Hemochromatosis: Conemaugh Health System
Hemochromatosis is a condition that develops when too much iron builds up in
the body. Excess iron is stored in the organs, such as the kidneys, liver, and
heart, and in the joint tissues.
Cooley Dickinson Hospital
Editor: George R Bowers MD
CDH Oncology January
2000 Volume 4: No. 1.
Hemochromatosis is a common, genetically transmitted disease. The
diagnosis of hemochromatosis is sometimes difficult and frequently missed.
This issue will review the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this
fascinating disease. Ms. Kathy Fleming will review the management of a most
troubling complication of therapy---lymphedema.
Hemochromatosis: Genetics, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment,
"Introduction to Hemochromatosis" Part I, by Barton & Edwards.
Except from their book, [a pdf file] This is a large & excellent book covering
all areas of hemochromatosis. Published in 2000, $215.00
[***According to Barton & Edwards, "diabetes is now the second most common
cause of death in hemochromatosis cases."]
in Ireland and HFE. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1998 The allele
frequency of 14% for the C282Y mutation in our control population is the
highest reported and supports the hypothesis of a Celtic origin for the
hereditary hemochromatosis gene.[pdf file]
Hemochromatosis: Life Extension Foundation website.
Disease, Prevention & Treatment 3rd editon. Dietary & Vitamin
recommendations listed here including calcium for blocking of iron absorption.
Special American Liver Foundation newsletter, ALF
Progress, Vol. 21 No. 1, Summer 1999 The ALF newsletter created three
scenarios based on the real life ethical, economic and medical quandaries
posed by hemochromatosis, and asked three experts from divergent fields to
respond with their opinions. The experts are: Bruce R. Bacon, MD [Director,
Div. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of
Medicine, St. Louis, M0]; medical ethicist Mark A. Rothstein, Esq.
[Director, University of Houston Law Center, Health Law & Policy
Institute, Houston, TX] and hemachromatosis patient Gayle Hoffman.
Hereditary hemochromatosis. Ann Clin Lab
Sci. 1998 Sep-Oct Patients at risk for genetic hemochromatosis
should be screened, identified, and treated as early as age 20 to prevent or
minimize the deadly complications of hemochromatosis. Population screening
should include measurements of serum iron concentration, total iron binding
capacity (TIBC), percent saturation of transferrin, and serum ferritin
concentrations. Early diagnosis and treatment will reduce the population
of aging individuals with severe, complicated hemochromatosis and dramatically
reduce medical costs (billions of U.S. dollars per annum) associated with the
management of this disease.
Hemochromatosis--A Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease
HH mutation is a human genetic model of disturbed iron metabolism, which
facilitates research to the mechanism of HH and iron involved in
cardiovascular disease. We expect that in the near future, the mechanism of
disturbed iron metabolism leading to cardiovascular disease in human will be
CME Activity, Release Date: 2/28/2000 Expiration Date: 2/28/2002 From the
February 2000 Issue of Physician Assistant Objectives: After
reading the article, the reader should be able to:
1. describe the pathophysiology of hereditary hemochromatosis;
2. recognize the clinical symptoms and signs of hereditary
3. outline screening and evaluation testing; and
4. provide accurate diagnosis, management, and treatment.
Hereditary Hemochromatosis FamilyPractice.com
Robert B. Hash, MD,
Department of Family Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon,
Ga. [J Am Board Fam Pract Dec. 2000]
Considering the prevalence
of the disease, it is important for physicians to consider it in the
differential diagnosis when patients complain of the common signs and
symptoms. For most patients hereditary hemochromatosis can be successfully
treated in the physician's office. Early diagnosis and treatment, before signs
of iron toxicity, if possible, can result in improved quality and quantity of
life for many patients.
Hereditary hemochromatosis: impact of molecular and iron-based testing on the
diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of a common, chronic disease.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1999 Nov,
Press RD. Department of Pathology, Oregon Health
Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA.
email@example.com This direct HFE mutation test can now be used not only to
confirm the diagnosis of HH in those with symptomatic disease, but also,
perhaps more importantly, to detect those with presymptomatic iron overload in
whom future disease manifestations may be prevented (with phlebotomy therapy).
Hereditary hemochromatosis in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1988 Spring
Young individuals who should be screened for iron
overload include patients with cardiac myopathies, hypogonadism, amenorrhea,
loss of libido, diabetes mellitus, other endocrine disorders, cirrhosis of the
liver, and arthritis, as well as the siblings, parents, and children of
patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or iron loading of unknown cause.
Hemochromatosis, J Am Board Fam Pract
14(4):266-273, 2001, Robert B. Hash, MD,
Department of Family Medicine, Mercer
University School of Medicine, Macon, Ga
hemochromatosis. J Fam Pract, 44(3):304-8 1997 Mar
Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder of iron metabolism that has an
excellent prognosis if diagnosed early.
HFE gene knockout
produces mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Mar.
Xiao Yan Zhou,
Shunji Tomatsu, Robert E. Fleming, Seppo Parkkila,
Abdul Waheed, Jinxing Jiang, Ying Fei,
Elizabeth M. Brunt, David A. Ruddy, Cynthia E. Prass,
Randall C. Schatzman, Rosemary O'Neill, Robert S.
Britton, Bruce R. Bacon, and William S. Sly
The knockout mouse model of HH will facilitate
investigation into the pathogenesis of increased iron accumulation in HH and
provide opportunities to evaluate therapeutic strategies for prevention or
correction of iron overload.
- HFE mutations in insulin resistance-associated hepatic
iron overload.J Hepatol. 2000
Sep;33;33(3):515-6. No abstract available.
Do I Know If I've Got Too Much Iron? "The
Protein Power Lifeplan" by Michael R. Edes, MD and Mary Dan Eades, MD.
How much iron should you have in storage? Probably around 500 mg or a
little less, which corresponds to a serum ferritin of 50 or lower.
resistance-associated hepatic iron overload
Gastroenterology 1999 Nov; This study shows that patients with unexplained
hepatic iron overload are characterized by a mild to moderate iron burden and
the nearly constant association of an IRS irrespective of liver damage.
catalyzed oxidative damage, in spite of normal ferritin and transferrin
saturation levels and its possible role in Werner's syndrome, Parkinson's
disease, cancer, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Med Hypotheses 2000
Sep the disease is often overlooked by physicians, until several organs have
been damaged permanently (heart, liver, brain, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, etc.).
Moreover, since ferritin, transferrin saturation and hematocrit levels are not
directly related to cellular iron levels, and since excess iron can wreak havoc
in the cell, we can conclude that there is a need for a better way to evaluate
intracellular iron levels and especially the intracellular free iron levels by a
Loading and Disease Surveillance
Eugene D. Weinberg Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana Emerging Infectious
Diseases Journal, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. Excessive iron in specific tissues and cells
(iron loading) promotes development of infection, neoplasia, cardiomyopathy,
arthropathy, and various endocrine and possibly neurodegenerative disorders.
Iron overload and public health
Bull Acad Natl
Med. 2000 Genetic hemochromatosis, due to its
frequency (about 300,000 cases in France) and to its severity, must be
considered as a public health burden. Its curability--insofar as its diagnosis
has been made early--and the disposal of non invasive and reliable phenotypic
(transferrin saturation) and genotypic (HFE C282Y mutation) tests make its
Overload Disease due to Hereditary Hemochromatosis
website, National Center for Chronic Disease
Prevention and Health Promotion. Early detection and treatment for
this genetic condition can lessen morbidity and mortality, and in some cases
prevent the onset of disease. Therefore, early detection of hemochromatosis
represents a major chronic disease prevention opportunity.
Overload (Hemosiderosis; Hemochromatosis)
The Merck Manual of
Diagnosis and Therapy Section 11. Hematology And Oncology Chapter 128.
Hemochromatosis is often diagnosed late in the course of disease after
significant tissue injury is present because the clinical symptoms are
insidious and the extent of organ involvement varies; thus, the full
clinical picture evolves slowly.
Long-term survival analysis in hereditary hemochromatosis.
Gastroenterology. 1991 Aug Early
diagnosis and treatment of hemochromatosis in the precirrhotic stage can lead
to long-term survival similar to that in the general population. The presence
of cirrhosis significantly increases mortality and is the major clinical
factor affecting survival.
survival in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis Gastroenterology, Vol 110, 1107-1119, 1996 by American Gastroenterological
Association Prognosis of hemochromatosis and most of its
complications, including liver cancer, depend on the amount and
duration of iron excess. Early diagnosis and therapy largely
prevent the adverse consequences of iron overload.
Management of hereditary hemochromatosis. Blood
Rev. 1994 Dec
Phatak PD, Cappuccio JD. Early diagnosis and
institution of phlebotomy treatments will prevent these manifestations and
normalize life expectancy. Once organ damage is established many of the
manifestations are irreversible. Since the early manifestations of the disease
are subtle, a case can be made for routine screening.
genetics of hemochromatosis
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 1999 Sep Hemochromatosis is a recessive disorder of iron
metabolism characterized by progressive iron loading of parenchymal organs,
which accounts for clinical complications such as cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus,
cardiopathy, endocrine dysfunctions and arthropathy.
People Get Too Much Not Too Little Iron
Optimal Wellness Center Issue 200 March 7, 2001 Dr. Joseph
Mercola. DR. MERCOLA'S COMMENT: I have warned about the dangers of
iron many times before in this newsletter. It is a potentially dangerous
supplement and it needs to be used very cautiously, especially in those with
an increased risk of heart disease.
fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome: Diabetes 2001 Aug; There was laboratory evidence of iron overload in
many NAFLD patients, but clinical, histological, and biochemical data
(including insulin sensitivity) were not correlated with iron status. Four
subjects were heterozygous for mutation His63Asp of the HFE gene of familiar
on Iron Overload and Hemochromatosis CDC website, National
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Early
detection of hemochromatosis is essential because the disease’s
potentially serious complications can be prevented by early therapy.
Cases for Diagnosis: A 37 year old male is referred to the liver clinic
for evaluation of abnormal liver related enzymes. Includes pictures of
biopsy slides. Case 96-19: Liver II Contributed by D. Robert Dufour, M.D., CAPT,
MC, USNR-R Date Available: July 22, 1996 - December 31, 1996
guideline development task force of the College of American Pathologists.
Hereditary hemochromatosis. Witte DL, Crosby WH, Edwards CQ,
Fairbanks VF, Mitros FA. College of American Pathologists Clin Chim Acta
1996 Feb. In view of the high prevalence in the American population
(prevalence varies with ethnic background), the low cost of diagnosis and
treatment, the efficacy of treatment if begun early, and, on the other hand,
high costs and low success rate of late diagnosis and treatment, systematic
screening for hemochromatosis is warranted for all persons over the age of
IRON OUT OF THE FIRE
by Shelly Morrow.
This article appeared in the Sept/Oct
2000 issue of Arthritis Today, published
by the Arthritis Foundation, Inc.,
Recognition and management of hereditary hemochromatosis.
Am Fam Physician 2002 Mar 1 65:853-60 Brandhagen DJ,
Fairbanks VF, and Baldus W Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. The
HFE gene test is useful in confirming the diagnosis of hereditary
hemochromatosis, screening adult family members of patients with HFE mutations
and resolving ambiguities concerning iron overload.
Recognizing genetic hemochromatosis. J La
State Med Soc. 1994 Dec This article reviews the
disease process hemochromatosis, which is now recognized as one of the most
common genetic disorders. It is imperative that physicians learn to
recognize early signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis so that treated patients
can expect a normal life span with minimal medical intervention.
- Relating Genomic Research to Patient Care
JAMA 11/2000 Educating health care professionals about the
complexities of the genetics of adult disease (in addition to congenital
illness) is an important goal, and one disease model that is useful for this
purpose involves hemochromatosis.
aspects of iron in food.
Ann Nutr Metab 2001; There is no regulated iron excretion in overload.
Excess of pharmaceutical iron may cause toxicity and therapeutic doses may cause
gastrointestinal side effects.
for Iron Overload due to Hereditary Hemochromatosis
CDC website, Reyes, Michele, PhD and Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, National
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Identifying
people early with evidence of iron overload represents a major chronic
disease prevention opportunity.
Should all patients with diabetes mellitus be screened for hemochromatosis?
Department of Family Medicine University of California, Los Angeles 924
Westwood Blvd, Suite 650 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1628
West J Med 2002;176:110-114 Enhanced
case finding becomes the first stage in a public health response
when evidence has emerged for an effective early treatment of a
disorder. It means the detection of HHC at the time of early
symptoms, and it allows patients to benefit from early phlebotomy.
The implementation of this approach would
include adding fasting serum transferrin saturation to the usual
workup of patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus,
arthritis, and impotence. The CDC recommends such iron-overload testing
in anyone with possible symptoms of hemochromatosis, which
includes patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
articular damage of hemochromatosis. A little known aspect Recenti Prog
Med 1999 Apr The aim of this report is to underline that the patients with
premature osteoarthritis or unexplained chondrocalcinosis must be screened for
genetic haemochromatosis in order to formulate the correct diagnosis before the
development of severe internal organ involvement
Survival and causes of death in hemochromatosis. Observations
in 163 patients.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988 Life
expectancy was reduced in patients who presented with cirrhosis or diabetes
compared to patients who presented without these complications at the time of
diagnosis. Patients who could be depleted of iron during the first 18 months
of venesection therapy had a markedly better prognosis compared to those
patients who could not be depleted during this time period.
The relationship between iron overload, clinical symptoms, and age in 410
patients with genetic hemochromatosis.
Hepatology. 1997 Jan The nonspecific nature of the
presenting features in patients and the presence of significant clinical
symptoms in patients discovered through family investigations underscore the
importance of family and population screening for hemochromatosis. The
prevalence of cirrhosis, diabetes, cardiac disease, pigmentation, and fatigue
increased as liver iron concentration increased. The most common presentations
at diagnosis were fatigue.
Ultrastructural changes in the pancreas of carbonyl iron-fed rats.
Iancu TC, Ward RJ, Peters TJ. Division of Clinical Cell
Biology, MRC Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, U.K.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1990 Jan Diabetes mellitus is found
with increased frequency in patients with both primary and secondary
of HFE Mutation Analysis for Hereditary Hemochromatosis:
Need for Physician Education in the Translation of Basic Science to Clinical
Practice Manish Kohli, MB, ChB, Steven A. Schichman, MD, PhD, Louis Fink, MD, Clive
S. Zent, MB, BCh, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of
Hematology/Oncology and the Department of Pathology, John L. McClellan Memorial
Veteran's Hospital and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock.
Southern Medical Journal
new in hemochromatosis.
Curr Opin Hematol 2001 Mar The high
correlation of HFE to HHC has caused it to be considered as a candidate gene for
population-based genetic testing for diagnosis and detection of predisposition
Click on this link to read about HH. Discussion of a liver biopsy is also
to the "Munnsters" main Hemochromatosis page